George Belles Smith

Recently cataloguing some engravings of Scottish antiquities and, once in a while, there is a certain pleasure to be had in attempting to rescue someone from obscurity.  The idea was born of an occasional series on long and perhaps unjustly forgotten engravers.  Fame, reputation and posterity don’t always get these matters quite right.  Luck, and sometimes inattention, play their part.  Why, amongst all the many engravers whose lives are duly recorded in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, no place should have been found for G. B. Smith, it is difficult to say.  His work is not all that often met with, granted – only, I think, a single example in the British Museum – but even among that vastly talented generation of nineteenth-century British engravers who worked on steel, he stands out.  “Beautifully finished” is how Basil Hunnisett described his work in his An Illustrated Dictionary of British Steel Engravers (1989) – and no-one better to make such a judgement.  Yet, beyond the few short lines in Hunnisett, I don’t think there is any other account of the man at all – for he is plainly not the potentially confusing George Barnett Smith recorded by Rodney Engen in Dictionary of Victorian Engravers, Print Publishers and Their Works (1979).


Airth – after R. W. Billings.

Pause here for a personal moment while I wonder can it really be so very long ago that the Hunnisett book appeared – for surely he and I were corresponding on these matters long before even that – in fact I know so.  Impossible to deny, he says so in the preface.   But – that aside – G. B. Smith.  Where to start?  The work, of course – almost exclusively mid-nineteenth-century architectural and antiquarian plates for Robert William Billings, James Raine, Thomas Rickman and Edmund Sharpe – executed with startling precision, a richness of field and depth seldom seen in steel-plate work, a boldness of treatment, and yet a capacity for the lightest and featheriest of touches on the landscape features – foliage that even Ruskin might have admired.

But who was he?  The work simply signed G. B. Smith – no forenames given.  Not the easiest of names to pursue – not certain what the initials stand for – George Something-or-Other  probably – but there were 8,679 George Smiths in England and Wales on the 1851 Census Returns – another 1,020 in Scotland – over 10,000 in all if we include variants on George like Geo.  But online research tools improve all the time, almost daily – how very, very, different it all was back in the 1980s.

Narrowed down with surprising (and stroke-of-lucky) ease to George Belles Smith of 6 Molesworth Place, Kentish Town in North London – aged thirty-one on the night of the 1851 Census, recorded as a London-born architectural engraver, resident with his wife Elizabeth, a son and a daughter.  The rest of the biographical record soon blocked in.

Aberdeen Cathedral

Aberdeen Cathedral after R. W. Billings.

He was born on 7th March 1820, the son of George Smith, an excise-officer, and his wife Martha Belles – then living in Catharine Street, Tower Hamlets.  He was baptised on 23rd April 1820 at St. George in the East.  The 1841 Census throws up something interesting – he was then recorded as an apprentice to George Gladwin (1789-1860), another fine engraver in similar vein, although perhaps a little more orthodox and mechanical in his approach.  A relationship that, in fact, we might well have guessed at – a distinct similarity of style, Gladwin old enough to have been trained on copper rather than steel and retaining that feel for the velvety blacks of the softer metal.                                 

George Belles Smith married Elizabeth Johnson, the daughter of a Suffolk farmer, at St. Pancras in 1847. The couple and their family remained at Molesworth Place for most of their lives, although they are also recorded at 1 Belles Cottages, West Road, Forest Hill, in South London – the name perhaps suggesting some personal involvement in this suburban development.   Smith died at the Forest Hill address on 14th June 1875, leaving a modest but not unhealthy estate, by the standards of the time, of “under £450” – his will proved by a daughter, Elizabeth Matilda Smith, and another engraver, Francis William Phipps (1832?-1898), a nephew of George Gladwin and also a Gladwin apprentice. It was a tight-knit world, and one soon to disappear – the days of steel-engraving already almost past.

About Laurence Worms - Ash Rare Books

Laurence Worms has owned and run Ash Rare Books since 1971. He represented the antiquarian book trade on the (British) National Book Committee from 1993 to 2002 and has been six times an elected member of the Council of the Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association. He was largely responsible for drafting the Association’s Code of Good Practice first introduced in 1997 (and its recent update), served as Honorary Secretary of the Association from 1998 to 2001 and as President from 2011 to 2013. He is a former member of the Council of the Bibliographical Society and continues to serve on the Council of the London Topographical Society. He writes and lectures on various aspects of the history of the book and map trades, and has lectured at the universities of Cambridge, London, Reading and Sheffield, as well as at the Bibliographical Society, the Royal Geographical Society, the Warburg Institute, the National Library of Scotland and at Gresham College and Stationers' Hall. Published work includes the compilation of fourteen ‘lives’ for the “Oxford Dictionary of National Biography”, a number of articles for “The Oxford Companion to the Book” and the chapter on early English maps and atlases for the fourth volume of “The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain”. Essays on the British map trade are also appearing in “The History of Cartography” published by the University of Chicago Press. His long-awaited “British Map Engravers”, co-written with Ashley Baynton-Williams, was published to critical acclaim in 2011. He also contributed the numerous biographical notes to Peter Barber’s hugely successful “London : A History in Maps”, co-published by the British Library and the London Topographical Society in 2012.
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5 Responses to George Belles Smith

  1. A fascinating post on GBS – who is recorded as being buried in Ladywell cemetery ( Lewisham) if he has a headstone , the friends group will seek to locate it .

    Mike Guilfoyle
    Vice-Chair : Friends of Brockley & Ladywell cemeteries.

    ps GJ Snowden is also recorded as being buried here !

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Would much appreciate a location for the grave – as and if you can track it down, All best wishes, LW.


  3. An intriguing post script to above -on the burial records ( obtained via DoL) their is a George Vincent Smith ( age26) noted as having died on the same day at the same address in F Hill ( 1875) , He is described as a ‘ sculptor in stone’ GBS is described as a ‘ carver in wood’…any thoughts ? Regards Mike

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Well – that is intriguing. George Vincent Smith (1849-1875) was his son, described as a marble mason on the 1871 census return – so there are probably some examples of his work in the cemetery. But for father and son to have died on the same day rather suggests a family tragedy of some sort. I can’t see any notice of an inquest or other reporting in the British Newspaper Archive, although you would imagine the local press would have picked up on it. I’ll do some more delving, but we may need to obtain the death certificates,
    All best, LW.


  5. As to GBS being described as a “carver in wood”, the demand for steel-engraving had largely dried up by the 1870s, so I imagine he may have switched to wood-engraving, for which there was a much greater call. Different material and “white-line” rather than “black-line” engraving, but the same tools and it was a switch that others had also made. LW.


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